How to Make Your Culture Work (Schneider)

NEW. For updated information on this post, please see An Agile Adoption and Transformation Survival Guide.


I finally had time to read The Reengineering Alternative: A plan for making your current culture work by William Schneider. If you are at all concerned about successful Agile adoption, then this is a must-read.

Before reading the book, I already had a pretty good idea about it thanks to a private seminar with Michael Spayd and a conference session by Israel Gat – How we do things around here in order to succeed. But when reading the book, I crystallized my thinking about a whole number of disparate experiences and open questions.

In this post, I will cover the key concepts of the book. Analysis and connections to Agile will follow in subsequent posts.

Schneider Culture Model

In the diagram below, there are four cultures depicted – one in each quadrant. Each has a NAME, a “short quote”, a picture, and some words the characterize that quadrant. As you read through this, you may will get a sense of where your company is.

There are also two axis that indicate where the focus or an organization is:

  1. Horizontal: People Oriented (Personal) vs. Company Oriented (Impersonal)
  2. Vertical: Reality Oriented (Actuality) vs. Possibility Oriented

This provides an a way to see relationships between the cultures. For example, Control culture is more compatible with Collaboration or Competence cultures than with Cultivation culture.

Key points about culture

  • Management guru Peter Drucker says “Culture … is singularly persistent … In fact, changing behaviour works only if it is based on the existing ‘culture'”
  • No one culture type is better than another. The book details the strengths and weaknesses of each so check it out if you are curious to learn more.
  • Depending on the type of work, one type of culture may be a better fit.
  • Companies typically have a dominant culture with aspects from other cultures. This is fine as long as those aspects serve the dominant culture.
  • Different departments or groups may have different cultures. (e.g. development vs. operations)
  • Differences can lead to conflict.

How to make Culture work

The starting point for making culture work is understanding it. The book describes a survey you can give to staff (Example Survey from Book in Survey Monkey – N.B. You can’t see the results). The book suggests using this as a starting point for culture workshops with a diverse group of staff.

There are several suggestions for using cultural information to guide decision-making:

  1. Evaluate key problems in the context of culture. Sometimes changes are needed to bring the culture into alignment with the core culture.
  2. Sometimes the culture is too extreme (e.g. too much cultivation without any controls – or vice versa!), and elements from other cultures are needed to bring it back into balance.
  3. Consider the possibility of creating creating interfaces/adapters/facades to support mismatches between departments or groups.

Well, that’s the book in a nutshell. More to follow on how this relates to Agile.

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  • April 1st « OlafLewitz Said,

    April 1, 2011 @ 4:21 pm

    […] got a book, highly recommended my my friend Michael Sahota, started reading the first 5 pages, and have been sucked in. Review coming […]

  • Michael K. Spayd Said,

    April 6, 2011 @ 10:15 pm

    Great picture! Nice elucidation of an important topic!


  • Michael K. Spayd Said,

    April 6, 2011 @ 10:16 pm

    Great picture! Nice elucidation of an important topic.

  • Bob Marshall Said,

    April 10, 2011 @ 7:25 am

    Honestly, I don’t buy this as a *comprehensive* explanation of the success or failure of agile adoptions, but I do agree that the Schneider Cultural Model highlights ONE dimension (or maybe two) of some 50-odd different dimensions that separate organisational mindsets into e.g. Ad-hoc, Analytic, Synergistic and Chaordic.

    – Bob @FlowchainSensei

  • Michael Sahota Said,

    April 10, 2011 @ 4:31 pm

    Hi Bob, thanks for your comments. This post is a book review and for sure this book does not have all the answers. It provides a model that is useful for understanding some things and less useful for other things.

    I was thinking about RightShifting and how to put these models into a shared context. But I couldn’t figure it out. Probably need your help for that.

    I also agree that there are a number of different dimensions for Agile failure/success. Maybe it would be useful to map out the key ones.

    – Michael

  • CSM Class in Boston sponsored by Conscires Agile with Alan Cyment « Musings Collection Said,

    April 11, 2011 @ 6:11 pm

    […] did a great job describing and characterizing the 4 quadrants, it reminded me of another blog I read some time ago about the same topic. Check it […]

  • CSM Class in Boston sponsored by Conscires Agile Practices with Alan Cyment | CONSCIRES AGILE PRACTICES Said,

    April 17, 2011 @ 4:29 pm

    […] did a great job describing and characterizing the 4 quadrants, it reminded me of another blog I read some time ago about the same topic. Check it […]

  • Agile Fits Better in Some Company Cultures than Others Said,

    April 26, 2011 @ 9:08 am

    […] How to Make Your Culture Work (Schneider) I finally had time to read The Reengineering Alternative: A… […]

  • Culture and People and Systems…Oh My! | Jason Little Said,

    September 15, 2011 @ 10:13 pm

    […] Sahota has written some fantastic posts about organization culture and I’m excited to read this book to expand my knowledge about […]

  • Schneider Culture Model « Perigee Consulting Said,

    October 19, 2011 @ 10:11 am

    […] take on corporate culture here: The key to agile adoption is the culture. The challenge is how to either find a company with the […]

  • Culture, People and Systems Part II | Jason Little Said,

    November 2, 2011 @ 5:05 pm

    […] For a fantastic description of culture types, check out Michael Sahota’s post here. […]

  • Notes from Agile Coach Camp: The Marshall Model | Learning Agile and Lean Said,

    November 6, 2011 @ 8:07 am

    […] may associate the word culture with some other definition, e.g. the Schneider model. Then an organization can easily have multiple […]

  • Rick Wahlberg Said,

    December 2, 2011 @ 11:20 am

    I attended a seminar @ Agile New England Michael gave. Made a lot of sense. he has a caveat that all models are flawed, that does not mean they can’t be useful. And in this case it does help me understand why certain change initiatives have and have not worked out. And gives me some ideas on what might be practical as I tackle this once again.

  • BigVisible Solutions | Organizational Culture Models & Agile Coaching Said,

    July 12, 2012 @ 3:27 pm

    […] along various competing values. The two most accessible models I’ve encountered are the Schneider model and the OCAI Competing Values Framework. They models seek to align organizations along two […]

  • Organisational Culture « Postgraduate Innovations Said,

    August 1, 2012 @ 8:55 am

    […] power of culture in executing strategy through project-based work.  This is a neat diagram from Agilitrix that succinctly captures the critical aspects of the Schneider Model. Their site provides other […]

  • SCPD Online Community » Blog Archive » Wonderful graphic @ organizational culture Said,

    August 7, 2012 @ 8:40 am

    […] of culture in executing strategy through project-based work.  This is a neat diagram from Agilitrix that succinctly captures the critical aspects of the Schneider Model. Their site provides other […]

  • JE Said,

    August 8, 2012 @ 2:11 pm


    Other than looking/sounding good, are there independent quantitative ways (as opposed to qualitative “feels” right/wrong) to determine if things actually work this way? MBTI is a popular individual assessment tool, do it’s outcome correlate with how a person parses their work culture? [e.g., do people with different MBTIs rate the same organization in predictably different ways?]

  • Michael Sahota Said,

    August 19, 2012 @ 5:15 pm

    Hi JE, the survey is quantitative. About MBTI, Jason Little and Don Gray tie that in to the Schneider model. – Michael

  • Mo Said,

    September 27, 2012 @ 10:53 pm

    Hi Michael,

    I love the diagram. Can I use it in my upcoming textbook on leadership? I would like to request any copyright to use the diagram. Your one word ‘Approved’ might make all the difference here. Please let me know at


  • Michael Sahota Said,

    September 28, 2012 @ 7:32 am

    Yes. All my website content is available under Creative Commons. That diagram has CC on it, so you are free to use it (but not sell it). My request is that if you are using it that you use my company logo, but this is not strictly required. Enjoy.

  • Agile Grenoble 2012 : cultiver le désir et le plaisir des utilisateurs et des collaborateurs « Atelier logiciel Said,

    November 12, 2012 @ 3:43 am

    […] Un point litigieux qui a ouvert un débat (presque une polémique) le lendemain lors du forum ouvert : la référence au livre de Michael Sahota « An Agile Adoption and Transformation Survival Guide » disponible sur InfoQ, et notamment à la prétendue compatibilité de culture, sorte de distorsion du modèle de Schneider. […]

  • Change! Conférence ECAM Strasbourg | The Scrum Coach Said,

    April 11, 2013 @ 9:55 am

    […] Le modèle de Schneider permet de donner un premier aperçu de la culture de votre entreprise ou organisation. Il existe d’autres modèles plus détaillés encore, le modèle de Robitaille par exemple où l’analyse est faite entre degré de collaboration et degré de formalisation ce qui permet de cartographier les niveaux de communication de l’organisation. […]

  • Play4Agile & The Agile Coach Camp | Kurt's Blog Said,

    June 25, 2013 @ 10:33 am

    […] I attended was about changing organisational culture, but ended up being a discussion about the Schneider Model, which I am not the biggest fan of. One of the better sessions was the double session about […]

  • Agile/Lean Transformation – Week Two | Joshua L. Roberts Said,

    June 15, 2014 @ 8:16 pm

    […] Sahota’s presentation 10 Things Executives Need to Know About Agile, we have found the Schneider culture model extremely useful to better understand the organization’s current culture and where we need to […]

  • Agile Tooth Fairy and top barrier for Agile adoption | @tisquirrel Said,

    March 11, 2015 @ 4:48 pm

    […] Agile is not a tool or process, it is a culture itself. In his article Michael describes the Schneider Model for the companies culture and uses it to intersect with Agile […]

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